Why in news?
Approval of two new World Bank supported schemes – Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP) and Skill Strengthening for Industrial Value Enhancement (STRIVE) has been given a nod by the Cabinet.
FACTS (for PRELIMS)
- SANKALP intends to set up Trainers and Assessors academies with self-sustainable models.
- Additional training academies will also be set up under the scheme.
- The focus will be on greater level of decentralization in skill planning through institutional strengthening at state level, that includes setting up of State Skill Development Missions (SSDMs) and allow the states to come up with State and District level Skill Development Plans.
- It aims at improving the inclusion of marginalized communities including Persons with Disabilities (PwD), Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs) and also women for providing skill training opportunities.
- A skilling ecosystem will be created, such that it will support the country climb up the ladder in the Ease of Doing Business Index
- STRIVE scheme aims at developing a powerful mechanism for delivering training for quality skill development by strengthening the institutions like National Skill Development Agency (NSDA), National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), SSDMs, Sector Skill Councils etc.
- By involving Industrial clusters, business association and Small Scale Industries, the scheme intends incentivize Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) to improve the overall performance.
Aligned with other schemes/programmes
- The schemes shall provide the required impetus to the National Skill Development Mission, 2015 and its various sub-missions
- The schemes are aligned to flagship Government of India programs such as Make in India and Swachhta Abhiyan and aim at developing globally competitive workforce for domestic and overseas requirements.
ANALYSIS ( For Mains)
SKILL INDIA PROGRAMME A SHORT VIEW
Skill in India: Current Scenario
As per labour Bureau Report, 2014, the current size of India’s formally skilled workforce is only 2 percent. This apart, there is also the challenge of employability of large sections of conventionally educated youth. The Indian education system has been churning out brilliant minds but lacking in the skill set required for specific job.
There is huge gap between the talent that is coming out of colleges and universities and its suitability in terms of scope and standards of employable skills. The available NSSO data shows that 15 – 24 year old cohorts faces higher risk of working poverty as they enter the labour market opting for low paid jobs and withdraw from the market when they fail to get suitable employment. This high level of unemployment can be due to failure to find job or lack of competency or training opportunity or low demands for skill acquired leading to skill mismatch.
Why India needs Skill Development?
- The skilled workforce is crucial for the success of recently launched missions – Make in India, Digital India, and Smart Cities.
- Demographic Dividend: The ‘demographic window’ is only a span of few decades. The skilled youth is required to save demographic dividend from becoming demographic disaster.
- Slowdown in China – an opportunity: With China gradually vacating its factories, with rising Chinese wages and an appreciating Yuan, and also with internal demographic challenge of too few young people, India has an opportunity to become a factory of the world.
- Sectoral mobilization: Less number of people will be required to work in farming as productivity improves. This would result in sectoral mobilization of workforce from agriculture to secondary and tertiary activities.
- Skill Capital of World: To convert this vision into reality, India needs to create a skilled and productive workforce matching international standards of quality and productivity through integration of skills and training along with education
- Better Employment: Skills are needed to those currently in colleges for them to be better employed
- Younger Population: With most of the major economies of world having sizeable ageing population, India has huge opportunity of serving the booming market.
Major Skill Development Institutions
Ministry of Skill Development
The Ministry is responsible for co-ordination of all skill development efforts across the country, bridge demand and supply gap of skilled manpower, building the vocational and technical training framework, skill up-gradation,building of new skills, and innovative thinking not only for existing jobs but also jobs that are to be created.
The Ministry aims to Skill on a large Scale with Speed and high Standards in order to achieve its vision of a ‘Skilled India’.
It is aided by its functional arms – National Skill Development Agency (NSDA), National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), National Skill Development Fund (NSDF) and 33 Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) as well as 187 training partners registered with NSDC.
National Skill Development Corporation
The National Skill Development Corporation, (NSDC) is a Public Private Partnership in India, under the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship. The overall objective of NSDC is to create training capacity in thecountry; fund vocational training initiatives and create a market ecosystem for skill development. The mandate of NSDC was to train 150 million people by 2022.
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT
NATIONAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT MISSION
The National Skill Development Mission was launched to provide strong institutional framework at the Centre and States for implementation of skilling activities in the country. The Mission has a three-tiered, high powered decision making structure. At its apex, the Mission’s Governing Council, chaired by the Prime Minister, provide overall guidance and policy direction. The Steering Committee, chaired by Minister in Charge of Skill Development, review the Mission’s activities in line with the direction set by the Governing Council. The Mission Directorate, with Secretary, Skill Development as Mission Director, ensures implementation, coordination and convergence of skilling activities across Central Ministries/Departments and State Governments. The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) provides a natural home for the Mission, organically linking all three decision-making levels and facilitating linkages to all Central Ministries/Departments and State Governments.
Apprenticeship Protsahan Yojana
It is a major initiative to revamp the Apprenticeship Scheme in India. The major components of this initiative are
: · Amendment to the Apprentices Act, 1961 to making the legal framework friendly to both, industry and youth
- Enhancing the rate of stipend and indexing it to minimum wages of semi-skilled workers
- Government of India shares fifty percent of stipend for the first two years of training engaged by eligible establishments particularly in manufacturing
- Basic training curricula being restructured on scientific principles to make it more effective
- The Apprentice Protsahan Yojana will support one lakh apprentices during the period up to March 2017
Skill Loan Scheme
A ‘Skill Loan’ initiative is launched in which loans from Rs 5,000-1.5 lakhs will be available to whom who seek to attend skill development programmes, over the next five years. The idea is to remove financial constraints as a hindrance to accessing skill training programmes.
Creation of Union Ministry
The government notified the creation of the first dedicated Department of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in 2014, which later became a full-fledged Ministry with NSDA, NSDC and NSDF under its purview.
National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015
The Policy acknowledges the need for an effective roadmap for promotion of entrepreneurship as the key to a successful skills strategy. The Vision of the Policy is “to create an ecosystem of empowerment by Skilling on a large Scale at Speed with high Standards and to promote a culture of innovation based entrepreneurship which can generate wealth and employment so as to ensure Sustainable livelihoods for all citizens in the country”.
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
It is a flagship scheme for imparting skill training to youth, focussing on improved curricula, better pedagogy and trained instructors. The training includes soft skills, personal grooming, behavioral change et al. The scheme is being implemented by the newly created Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). It will cover 24 lakh youths. The Skill training would be based on the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) and industry led standards.
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya – Grameen Kaushal Yojana
The Ministry of Rural Development implements DDU-GKY to drive the national agenda for inclusive growth, by developing skills and productive capacity of the rural youth from poor families.
Features of Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana:
- Enable Poor and Marginalized to Access Benefits: Demand-led skill training at no cost to the rural poor
- Mandatory coverage of socially disadvantaged groups (SC/ST 50%; Minority 15%; Women 33%)
- Shifting Emphasis from Training to Career Progression: Providing incentives for job retention, career progression and placements
- Post-placement support, migration support and alumni network
- Regional Focus: Greater emphasis on projects for poor rural youth in Jammu and Kashmir (HIMAYAT), the North-East region and 27 Left-Wing Extremist (LWE) districts (ROSHINI)
- Standards-led Delivery: All program activities are subject to Standard Operating Procedures that are not open to interpretation by local inspectors.
All inspections are supported by geo-tagged, time stamped videos/photographs Recognition of Prior Learning of Construction Workers It is a national Scheme launched by the Ministry of Labour & Employment which includes:
- Providing National Council of Vocational Training(NCVT) Certificate
- Construction sites to be designated as Testing Centres
- Providing skill gap training of about 15 days
- Wage compensation for attending training classes and assessment
Education opens the door to lead a life of liberty but skills make that liberty meaningful by allowing one to achieve prosperity. In case of India, the country’s population pyramid is expected to bulge across the 15–59 age groups over the next decade. This demographic advantage is predicted to last only until 2040. India therefore has a very narrow time frame to harness its demographic dividend and to overcome its skill shortages. So, it is imperative to take coordinated efforts to skill its population and made India Skill Capital of World.
QUESTION BASED ON THE TOPIC
India aims at becoming Skill Capital of the World. Analyse the Skill development schemes taking place.
SOURCE – PIB (16/10/2017)